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Mel: The official salary for judges has always been too low to attract the best Candidates to the job. The legislature’s move to raise the salary has done nothing to improve the situation because it was coupled with a ban on receiving money for lectures and teaching engagements.

Pat: No, the raise in salary really does improve the situation. Since very few judges teach or give lectures, the ban will have little or no negative effect.

Pat’s response to Mel is inadequate in that it


Option A:

attempts to assess how a certain change will affect potential members of a group by providing evidence about its effect on the current members.

Option B:

mistakenly takes the cause of a certain change to be an effect of that change

Option C:

attempts to argue that a certain change will have a positive effect merely by pointing to the absence of negative effects

Option D:

simply denies Mel’s claim without putting forward any evidence in support of that denial

Option E:

assumes that changes that benefit the most able members of a group necessarily benefit all members of that group.

Difficulty Level



Option A is the correct answer

Option Analysis

Question type: Structure-based question 

Summary of the argument: Pat counters to Mel’s argument by saying that the ban will not have negative effects because NOW only a few judges teach.  


A) Correct Answer 

B) The cause of the change (ban) is not really specified.  

C) Pat is not talking about the presence or absence of any effects.  

D) Not happening in the argument.  

E) No sample-whole relationship.  


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